In this article, we look at Kissock Model Of Curriculum Development . Kissock (1979) suggested a ten-stage decision making model in the creation of any comprehensive social studies programme. Kissock’s curriculum model outlines the issues that should be raised and responded to in creating a social studies programme.
Limitation of Kissock’s Model
Kissock’s model is applied to social studies. Therefore, it may have some limitations for use in cultural studies, among others. Moreover, the initial stages in the development of the program (activities) in Kissock’s model are heavily based on the determination of the developers and decision-makers (for example, teachers and supervisors) and lack space for the contributions and feedback of the learners.
Another major limitation of Kissock’s model is that he did not provide channels through which suggestions for changing the program (activities) could be made to decision-makers. He only allowed changes to start from the fourth stage, “Enumerating Objectives.” (Sui, 2003)
The model is focused on the formal education system and may not be as applicable to informal or non-traditional educational settings.
Kissock Ten-Stage Decision Making Model
Kissock’s Ten-Stage Decision Making Model (1981) is represented by the flowchart and explained afterwards.
1. Determining the Course of Selecting Decision Makers
It’s important to determine who should be involved in designing an instructional programme. This helps to focus attention on programme parts of the programme that are the most important.
In selecting decision makers for curriculum development, it is important to consider a variety of factors to ensure that the process is fair and representative of the needs and interests of all stakeholders.
The process of selecting decision makers for a school’s curriculum can vary depending on the specific context and needs of the school. Some potential approaches could include:
- Involving a diverse group of stakeholders
This could include teachers, administrators, students, parents, and community members. By involving a diverse group of stakeholders, it can be ensured that the decision-making process is representative and takes into account the needs and perspectives of all members of the school community.
- Establishing a decision-making committee or task force.
This could be a group of individuals who are responsible for making decisions related to the school curriculum. This group could be composed of representatives from different areas of the school, such as teachers, administrators, and students.
- Utilizing a democratic or participatory decision-making process
This could involve allowing all members of the school community to have a say in the decision-making process, either through voting or through other forms of participation.
2. Deciding on a rationale
A rationale is an explanation of why people are doing what they are doing. It seeks to express reason, give purpose, and justify actions.
3. Determine the scope of the educational programme
The scope of the programme comprises the topics with which the programme will be concerned. Determining the scope of an educational program involves defining the content and objectives of the program, as well as the resources and time needed to achieve those objectives. The scope of an educational program can be influenced by a number of factors, including:
- Educational goals and standards
The scope of an educational program should be defined in relation to the goals and standards that the program is intended to meet.
- Student needs and interests
The scope of an educational program should be tailored to the needs and interests of the students it serves.
The scope of an educational program should be defined in relation to the curriculum that will be used to deliver it. This may involve determining the number of lessons or units that will be covered, as well as the resources and materials that will be used.
- Time and resources
The scope of an educational program should be defined in relation to the time and resources available for its delivery. This may involve determining the length of the program, the number of sessions per week or per term, and the number of students that can be accommodated.
By carefully defining the scope of an educational program, educators can ensure that the program meets its goals and provides a meaningful and engaging learning experience for students.
4. Enumerating objectives
In conjunction with the rationale and scope, the objectives indicated the learners’ outcome of the programme.
Enumerating the objectives of an educational program involves identifying the specific goals or outcomes that the program is intended to achieve. Some common objectives of an educational program might include:
- Knowledge acquisition
An educational program might aim to help students acquire new knowledge in a particular subject area, such as math, science, or history.
- Skills development
An educational program might aim to help students develop specific skills, such as problem-solving, critical thinking, or communication skills.
- Attitude or behavior change
An educational program might aim to change students’ attitudes or behaviors, such as by increasing their motivation or encouraging them to be more active or responsible.
- Social responsibility
An educational program might aim to help students understand their roles and responsibilities as members of their communities and as global citizens.
By clearly defining the objectives of an educational program, educators can ensure that the program is focused and effective in meeting its goals.
5. Chosing content
Selecting content is the first step in determining how programme objectives will be implemented. Decisions are based on objectives.
When choosing content for an educational program, it’s important to consider the goals and objectives of the program, as well as the intended audience. Here are some steps you can follow to help choose appropriate content:
- Define the goals and objectives of the programme
What do you want students to learn or be able to do as a result of participating in the program? This will help you focus on selecting content that aligns with your objectives.
- Research and gather information
Look for resources such as books, articles, videos, and other materials that can help you develop a comprehensive understanding of the topic.
- Evaluate the quality and relevance of the content
Consider whether the content is accurate, up-to-date, and appropriate for the intended audience.
- Organize the content
Decide how you will present the material and what teaching methods and resources you will use to deliver the program.
- Continuously assess and adjust
As you implement the program, pay attention to how well the content is being received and make adjustments as needed.
It’s also important to be flexible and open to adapting the content based on the needs and feedback of the students. By following these steps, you can choose content that is engaging, informative, and effective in helping students reach the goals of the educational program
6. Choosing instructional strategies
Instructional strategies are the procedures or methodologies through which content is presented and used to accomplish programme objectives.
There are many instructional strategies that you can use to teach classroom content effectively. Here are a few strategies that you might consider using:
- Direct Instruction
This involves the teacher clearly explaining a concept or skill to the students, using examples and demonstrations to illustrate the point.
- Inquiry-Based Learning
This involves providing students with a problem or question and encouraging them to explore and discover the answer on their own.
- Collaborative Learning
This involves having students work together in small groups to solve problems or complete projects.
- Project-Based Learning
This involves having students complete a long-term project that requires them to apply what they have learned in a real-world context.
- Problem-Based Learning
This involves presenting students with a complex problem or challenge and having them work through it by applying their knowledge and skills.
- Game-Based Learning
This involves using games or other interactive activities to engage students and help them learn.
It’s important to consider the age and level of your students, as well as the content you are teaching, when selecting instructional strategies. It may be helpful to use a combination of different strategies to engage students and meet the needs of different learners.
7. Identify material resources
While planning a programme, it’s necessary to Identify material resources that will be used. Material resources for teaching in a classroom can include:
- Textbooks: These provide students with the necessary content and information for a particular subject.
- Handouts: These are copies of texts or images that can be given to students for reference or to supplement a lesson.
- Visual aids: These can include posters, diagrams, charts, and other graphics that help students better understand the material being taught.
- Manipulatives: These are physical objects that students can use to manipulate and explore mathematical or scientific concepts. Examples include blocks, counters, and puzzles.
- Technology: This can include computers, tablets, and other electronic devices that can be used for research, communication, and other learning activities.
- Furniture: Desks, tables, chairs, and other types of furniture are necessary for creating a comfortable and functional learning environment.
- Supplies: This can include pens, pencils, paper, and other basic materials that students need to complete assignments and participate in class.
- Audio-visual equipment: This can include projection screens, whiteboards, and speakers that can be used to present information in a more interactive and engaging way.
8. Planning the evaluation
Evaluating the effectiveness of classroom content is an important aspect of teaching and learning. There are several ways you can approach the evaluation of your content, including:
- Asking for student feedback
You can ask your students to fill out a survey or hold a focus group to get their thoughts and impressions on the content. This can give you valuable insights into what is working well and what might need to be revised.
- Observing student engagement
Observing how engaged and involved students are during class can give you a sense of whether the content is holding their attention and meeting their needs.
- Assessing student learning
You can use a variety of assessment tools, such as quizzes, exams, projects, or papers, to assess how well students are learning and retaining the material.
- Reflecting on your own teaching
Take time to reflect on your own teaching and consider whether you are using a variety of teaching strategies and methods to engage students and support their learning.
9. Installation and monitoring of a programme
There are a few steps you can follow to install and monitor an educational program in a classroom:
- Monitor the use of the program in the classroom to ensure that it is being used effectively and that students are making progress. This may involve observing students as they work with the program, tracking their progress, and providing feedback and support as needed.
- Make any necessary adjustments to the program or to your plan for using it based on your observations and the feedback you receive from students.
10. Modifying the programme
If you want to modify an educational program, there are several steps you can take:
- Identify the goals and objectives of the program. What are you trying to achieve with the program? What outcomes do you hope to see?
- Evaluate the current program. Look at the curriculum, materials, and delivery methods being used. Are they effective in achieving the goals and objectives of the program? Are there any areas that could be improved upon?
- Consult with stakeholders. Talk to teachers, students, and other stakeholders to get their input on the program. Ask them what they like about the program and what they would change.
- Research best practices. Look at other educational programs and see what approaches they are using to achieve their goals.
- Develop a plan for modifying the program. Based on your evaluation, stakeholder input, and research, develop a plan for making changes to the program. This may include revising the curriculum, updating materials, or changing the delivery methods.
- Implement and evaluate the changes. Put your plan into action and monitor the results. Make any necessary adjustments to ensure that the program is meeting its goals and objectives.
It’s important to keep in mind that modifying an educational program can be a complex process, and it may take time to see the results of your changes. However, by taking a systematic approach and involving all stakeholders, you can make meaningful improvements to the program.
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ARTICLE TITLE: Kissock model of curriculum development
COMPLIED BY: Students Mirror Educators.
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Kin Wai Michael Siu. (2001, June 1). Reconstructing the learning environment for the new needs in engineering training. Engineering Science & Education Journal, 10(3), 120–124. https://doi.org/10.1049/esej:20010307
Kissock, Curriculum Planning for Social Studies Teaching, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1981).