According to Oliva (1988), a curriculum model should be simple, comprehensive, and systematic.
The Oliva Model is an extension of the Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis (SAL) and the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) Models (Oliva, 2009). The SAL Model was developed by J. Galen Saylor, William M. Alexander, and Arthur J. Lewis in 1981, while the CIPP Model was developed in 1971 by Daniel L. Stufflebeam. Oliva adds eight concepts for curriculum construction:
Oliva combines the SAL and CIPP Models to develop the Oliva Model. He has further discussed the limitations of these two models.
The SAL Model only emphasized five components:
- The goals
- Subgoals and objectives
- The program on education in its totality
- The specific segments of the education program.
- Instruction and the evaluation program
Components of Oliva Curriculum Model
The Oliva Model consists of twelve components:
1. Statement of Aims and Philosophy of Education.
The first component of the Oliva curriculum model emphasizes the importance of defining the aims of philosophy education based on the needs of both the individual student and society as a whole. The aims should be aligned with the practical and social needs of the learners and the broader societal context. The educational goals should be guided by philosophical and psychological principles, and should be consistent with the broader goals and values of the educational system as a whole. By clearly articulating these aims, educators can ensure that their curriculum is purposeful, relevant, and effective in helping students achieve their full potential.
2. Specification of Needs
The second component of the Oliva curriculum model is the specification of needs, which involves analyzing and identifying the needs of the community, students, and subject matter in the context of curriculum development. This component plays a crucial role in ensuring that the curriculum is tailored to the specific needs of the learners and the community, thereby increasing its effectiveness and relevance.
Analyzing the needs of the community requires an exploration of the economic, social, and cultural context of the community, including its demographics and any unique needs or challenges faced by its members. Understanding the needs of the students involves identifying their learning styles, academic abilities, and any other unique needs, such as disabilities or language barriers. Additionally, the analysis of the subject matter’s exigencies involves understanding the complexity, relevance, and skills required to master the content. By taking all these needs into account, the curriculum designers can create a curriculum that is effective and relevant to the learners, the community, and the subject matter.
3. Curriculum Goals
4. Curriculum Objectives
5. Organization and Implementation of the Curriculum
The fifth component of the Oliva curriculum model deals with the organization and implementation of the curriculum. It involves the development of the structure and design of the curriculum, and the allocation of resources and strategies to effectively deliver it to students. This component is essential to ensuring that students acquire the knowledge and skills intended by the curriculum and that they are delivered in a logical and meaningful sequence.
The fifth component also involves the identification of the specific knowledge and skills that students will acquire through the curriculum. This enables teachers and educators to set clear learning objectives and align the curriculum with the desired educational outcomes. By doing so, educators can optimize the learning outcomes of students and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills required for their future education or career.
6. Specification of Instructional Goals
7. Specification of Instructional Objectives
8. Selection of Strategies
The “selection of strategies” is one of the ten components of the Oliva curriculum model, which is a framework for curriculum development. This component refers to the process of choosing the appropriate instructional strategies that will be used to facilitate student learning and achieve the desired learning outcomes of the curriculum.
9. Preliminary and Final Selection of Evaluation Techniques
The ninth component of the Oliva curriculum model, “Preliminary and Final Selection of Evaluation Techniques,” highlights the importance of incorporating evaluation techniques into the curriculum development process from an early stage. The curriculum planner must think ahead and begin to consider ways to assess student achievement as they design the curriculum. This involves brainstorming and exploring a range of assessment techniques and determining which methods will be most effective in measuring the desired learning outcomes. The preliminary selection of evaluation techniques is a crucial stage in this process, as it lays the groundwork for the final selection of evaluation techniques.
The final selection of evaluation techniques involves making a deliberate and informed decision about the assessment methods that will be used to measure student achievement. The curriculum planner considers a variety of factors, including the learning outcomes of the curriculum, the nature of the content being taught, and the abilities and needs of the students. The final selection of evaluation techniques ensures that the assessments used are aligned with the curriculum and effective in measuring student achievement. By incorporating evaluation techniques into the curriculum development process, the curriculum planner can create a more effective curriculum that meets the needs of students and supports their learning and development.
10. Implementation of Strategies
The implementation of strategies is a component of the Oliva curriculum model, which is a framework for curriculum development. This component refers to the actual implementation of the instructional strategies that were selected in the previous component of the model, “selection of strategies.”
During the implementation of strategies stage, the curriculum planner puts into action the selected instructional strategies that will be used to facilitate student learning and achieve the desired learning outcomes of the curriculum. This stage involves providing the necessary resources and materials, such as textbooks, technology, or equipment, to support the chosen strategies.
11. Evaluation of Instruction
The component “Evaluation of Instruction” in the Oliva curriculum model refers to the process of assessing the effectiveness of the teaching and learning that takes place within a curriculum. It involves evaluating the methods used to deliver the curriculum and the outcomes achieved by students as a result of the instruction.
The evaluation of instruction is an essential component of the curriculum model, as it helps educators determine whether their teaching methods are effective and whether students are learning what they need to know. It allows teachers to identify areas where they need to improve their teaching methods and adjust the curriculum accordingly.
12. Evaluation of the Curriculum
The Olivia curriculum model is a framework for designing and implementing educational programs. One of its key components is the evaluation of the curriculum program, which refers to assessing the effectiveness of the educational program itself rather than evaluating the students or teachers.
The evaluation of the curriculum program involves analyzing the program’s objectives, content, methods, and outcomes to determine whether they align with the overall goals of the educational institution or system. This process can help identify areas where the curriculum needs improvement or where it is successful in achieving its intended outcomes.
In contrast to evaluating students or teachers, which focuses on individual performance, curriculum evaluation takes a broader perspective and considers the entire educational program as a whole. By evaluating the curriculum program, educators and administrators can make informed decisions about how to modify or improve the program to better serve the needs of students and achieve desired learning outcomes.
The first component in the development of the curriculum is philosophical formulation, or target. The vision and mission of the institution all come from an analysis of student needs and an analysis of community needs.
The first component contains statements of a very general and ideal nature. The second component is the analysis of the needs of the community where the school is located, the needs of students, and the urgency of the disciplines that must be provided by the school. The second component is a goal that leads to more specific goals.
The third and fourth components contain the goal of general and specific curriculum goals that are based on the needs as listed in the first and second components, while the fifth component is how to organize and implement the curriculum design.
The sixth and seventh components start the curriculum by explaining the purpose of formulating general and specific learning goals. If the goal of learning has been formulated, the next set of possible strategies to achieve goals, such as the components of the eighth, During the same time, an initial study of potential assessment strategies or techniques that will be used can be done. Further development of the curriculum is addressed in the tenth component.
When the curriculum was implemented, the developer component of the curriculum went back to the ninth menseleksi end of the evaluation techniques to improve the evaluation tools or techniques. Techniques such as the assessment that has been assigned to the ninth component of the preliminary selection of the evaluation can be added or revised after feedback from the execution or implementation of the curriculum.
Determination of assessment tools and techniques is then the next component in the eleventh and twelfth conducted evaluations of learning and evaluations of the curriculum.
According to Oliva, who developed this model, it can be used in several dimensions. Particularly to improve the school curriculum in the areas of special mislanya improvement in the field of curriculum studies in schools, both in rank and in the curriculum planning process pembelajarannya
The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum.
Oliva recognized that the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
Peter Oliva Curriculum Biography
Born on August 31, 1922, Mr. Peter F. Oliva passed away on June 28, 2012. Originally from Liberty, New York, he completed high school there and later met his future wife. After serving in the US Army during WWII, he married Ruth in 1946, and they remained together for 66 years until his passing. They were active members of St. Richard’s Episcopal Church in Winter Park. Peter earned a PhD from Columbia University and became a Professor of Secondary Education at the University of Florida. He was also a prolific author and co-author of numerous books on curriculum and instruction. Peter is survived by his wife Ruth, daughter Eve, son Marc, sister Louise, and brother Tom, as well as his grandchildren, Greg, Corey, Anthony, and Amanda.
Peter F. Oliva, a distinguished curriculum developer, gained his fame in the field of curriculum science. He has held positions as a professor and chairperson at Southern Illinois University, Florida International University, and Georgia Southern University. His contributions to education include authoring numerous articles in education journals, several textbooks, and Supervision for Today’s Schools, now in its 8th edition. He has also taught at various universities, including the University of Florida, the University of Mississippi, Indiana State University, and the University of Hawaii. In addition, he has taught summer sessions at Portland State College (Oregon), Miami University (Ohio), and Western Michigan University, as well as serving as a part-time instructor supervising interns at the University of Central Florida. Peter has traveled extensively for educational and government programs in Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America. His book, Developing the Curriculum, has been translated into Mandarin, Vietnamese, and Korean.